REKLAMA

Skeletal system

The skeleton is the bony framework of the body supporting the soft tissues and protecting the vital organs within the skull, rib cage and pelvis.
The 206 bones that comprise the adult human skeleton are usually divided for the purpose of
study into two parts : the central axial skeleton , consisting of the bones of the skull, rib cage and the vertebral column, and the appendicular skeleton, consisting of the bones of the shoulders, arms, hips and legs.
The axial skeleton is designed primarily for the support and protection and therefore is quite rigid although the flexibility of the vertebral column allows it a certain
degree of movement.
The skull is made up of the bones of the cranium and the bones of the facial skeleton.
The cranium containing and protecting the brain consists of 8 bones united by immovable joints called sutures. The bones of the face include 14 bones of which only the mandible is an independent and mobile one.
The trunk contains 12 pairs of ribs.
The first seven pairs extend from the vertebral column on the sternum, or breast bone.
The next 3 pairs are attached with cartilage to the sternum and the two pairs of floating ribs are unattached in front.
Together the ribs form the rib cage.
The vertebral column serving as the main supporting structure is composed of a number of separate bones, the vertebrae.
The 33 vertebrae can be divided into 5 regions according to where they are found : the 7 cervical vertebrae located in the neck , 12 thoracic vertebrae contained at the back of the chest
, 5 lumbar in the small of the back and five sacral and four coccygeal fused together to form
the sacrum and the coccyx, respectively.
The first two vertebrae are known as the atlas and the axis.
The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the extremities , as well as the bones of the shoulders and hips which attach the bones of the extremities to the axial skeleton.
As shown in the diagram, the shoulder is composed of the clavicle and the scapula. The clavicle , or collarbone, is a thin bone forming the front os the shoulder.
It is attached medially to the sternum and laterally to the scapula.
The scapula , or shoulder blade, is a large flat bone located in the upper part of the back. The arm contains only one large bone - the humerus.
The forearm is composed of two bones , the radius and the ulna.
Proximally, the radius articulates with the humerus and distally – with two of the carpal bones of the wrist and the ulna.
The wrist consists of eight carpal bones articulating with the metacarpals of the hand. The finger bones are known as phalanges.
The pelvic girdle is composed of the two large hip bone forming the sides and front, and the sacral and coccyheal vertebrae that form the back.
Analogically to the arm, the thigh also contains one bone.
It is the femur, the longest and the heaviest bone of the body. The leg is composed of two bones, the tibia and fibula.
The bones of the ankle are known as the tarsals.
Five smaller tarsal bones and the five metatarsals from the remainder of the foot. The toes, like the fingers , are composed of 14 bones referred to as phalanges.

Framework

podstawa, struktura

Support

podtrzymyać

Tissues

tkanki

Vital

ważny

Skull

czaszka

Rib

żebro

Rib cage

klatka piersiowa

Pelvis

miednica

Comprise

tworzy

Adult

dorosły

Divided

podzielony

Purpose

cel

Axial

osiowy

Appendicular

odnoszący się do

Designed

stworzony, zaprojektowany

Primarily

głownie

Therefore

zatem

Quite

sztywny

Although

chociaż

Flexibility

giętki

Movement

ruch

Cranium czaszka

czaszka

Contain

zawierać

Immovable

nieruchomy

Sutures

szwy

Mandible

żuchwa

Independent

niezależny

Cartilage

chrząstka

Floating

wolne

Serving

służyć pomocą

Divided

podzielony

According to

według

Cervical

szyjne

Lumbar

lędźwiowe

Sacral

krzyżowe

Coccygeal

guziczne

Fused

łączyć

Respectively

odpowiednio

Vertebrae

kręgi

Extermities

wyniszczający

Clavicle=collarbone

obojczyk

Scapulae=shoulder blade

łopatki

Medially

środkowo

Sternum

mostek

Laterally

bocznie

Flat

płaski

Humerus

kość ramienna

Radius

kość promieniowa

Ulna

kość łokciowa

Proximally

bliższy

Distally

dalszy

Carpals

nadgarstek

Metacarpals

śródręcze

Phalanges

paliczki

Femur

kość udowa

Tibia

kość piszczelowa

Fibula

kość strzałkowa

Tarsal

kości stępu

Metatarsal

śródstopie

Remainder

pozostałe

Referred

określane jako

Ilium

biodro

Pubis

łono

OTHER

External

-zewnętrzny

Internal

-wewnętrzny

Nastril

-nozdrza

Beard

-broda

Belly

-brzuch

Tummy

-brzuszek

Unstep

-podbicie

Forefinger

-palec wskazujący

Index finger

- // -

Middle finger

-palec środkowy

Ring finger

-palec serdeczny

Little finger

-mały palec

Torso

-tors

Back

-plecy

Bust

-biust

Breasts

-piersi

Nipple

-brodawka piersiowa

Buttocks

-pośladki

Bottom

-tyłek

Throat

-gardło

Stomach

-żołądek

Vena

-żyła

Aorta

-tętnica

Heart

-serce

Lung

-płuco

Liver

-wątroba

Kidney

-nerka

Bowels

-jelita

Appendix

-wyrostek robaczkowy

Bladder

-pęcherz noczowy

Tonsils

-migdałki

Tongue

-język

Passess

-posiada

Bibliografia :
Ewa Donesch-Jeżo -English for Nurses
Ewa Donesch-Jeżo - English for Medical Students
Ewa Donesch-Jeżo -English for medical students and doctors

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