REKLAMA

Nervous system

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND IT’S DISORDERS

Divided into

Podzielony

Internal

Wewnętrzny

External

Zewnętrzny

Environment

Środowisko

Various

Różnorodny

Composed

Składać się z

Spinal cord

Rdzeń kręgowy

The branch

Gałąź,odgalęziać

Skull

Czaszka

Hemispheres

Półkula

Surface

Powierzchnia

Folds

Składac, zginać, zgięcie, fałda

Compared

Porównać

Receives

Otrzymywać, odbierać

Enclosed

Załączać, otaczać

Involuntary

Mimowolny

Blood vessels

Naczynia krwionośne

Intestines

Jelita, wnętrzności

Trauma

Uraz, przeżycie

Degeneration

Niszczenie

Neoplastic

Nowotworowy

Meningitis

Zapalenie opon mózgowych

Encephalitis

Zapalenie mózgu

Meningioma

Oponiak

Mild

Łagodny, delikatny

Concussion

Wstrząs psychiczny

Impairment

Zniesienie, osłabienie

Development

Rozwój, postęp

Handicap

Niepełnosprawny

Atherosclerosis

Miażdżyca tętnic

Hypertension

Nadciśnienie

Paresis

Niedowład, porażenie

Hemiparesis

Niedowład połowiczy

Paralysis

Paraliż, bezwład

Accompanied

Towarzyszyć

Dizziness

Zawroty głowy

Anxiety

Niepokój

Epilepsy

Epilepsja, padaczka

Speech disturbances

Zaburzenia mowy

Neurosis

Nerwica

Dementia

Obłęt, otępienie umysłowe

Neuropathy

Choroba nerwowa

Diabetes

Cukrzyca

Leukaemia

Białaczka

Poisoning

Krwawienie

Numbness

Zdrętwienie , odrętwienie

Tingling

Mrówienie, kłucie

myalgia Reumatyzm mięśniowy, ból mięśniowy

Sweating

Pocić się

Frontal, parietal,occipital, temporal lobe

Czołowy,ciemieniowy,potyliczny,skroniowy

płat

Midbrain

Śródmózgowie

Pons

Most

Medulla oblongata

Rdzeń przedłużony

Cerbellum

Móżdżek

Peripheral

Obwodowy

Tumour

Guz

Mental retardation

Upośledzenie umysłowe

The nervous system is divided into 3 parts :
-central nervous system -autonomic nervous system -peripheral nervous system
The function of the NS is to react to internal and external environment and carry impulses to the brain and from the brain to various parts of the body.
The central nervous system is composed of : brain , spinal cord , nerves that branch off the brain and the spianl cord.
The brain is situated in the skull, in cranial cavity.
The brain is divided into two hemispheres : right and left. Their surface has a great number of folds.
The brain is often compared to a comupter, because like a computer it receives information,
sends it out and stores it for use in the future.
The spinal cord runs down from the base of the brain eclosed in the spinal canal.
The peripheral NS is composed of 12 pairs cranial nerves which branch off the brain , and 31 pair spinal nerves, whuch branch off the spinal cord.
The autonomic NS is consist of two parts : sympathetic and parasympathetic system.
They work in opposition its means if one of them increases the activity of an organ, that other decreases it.
The funtion of autonomic NS is controls the involuntary action of such organs as the heart, lungs, intestinal , blood vessels.
Diseases of the NS may be caused by trauma ( head injury or spinal cord injury), degeneration
(multiple sclerosis),infection (meningitis, encephalitis) or neuroplastic ( meningioma or brain tumour).
A mild injury brain is called concussion.
Impairment of the brain development leads to mental hendicap or mental retardation. Atherosclerosis and hypertension may cause a stroke manifested by paresis, hemiparesis , paralysis.
Symptoms of patologies of NS include : headache and migraine accompanied by vomiting, dizziness and axiety.
There may also occur epilepsy, speech disturbances, depression, neurosis or dementia. Inflammation or damage to the peripheral nerves is called neuropathy.
The most common causes of nerve damage are : diabetes, leukemia, cancer, lead poisoning and excessive alcohol consumption.
Symptoms caused by neuropathy include numbness, tingling, muscle pain ( myalgia), muscle weakness, swating.

DISEASES SYMPTOMS SYMPTOMS NEUROPATHY

Multiple sclerosis

headache

Numbness

Meningioma or brain tumour

migraine

Tingling

Meningitis

vomiting

Muscle pain (myalgia)

Encephalitis

dizziness

Muslce weakness

Concussion

anxiety

sweating

Hemiparesis

Paresis

Paralysis

Neuropathy

Bibliografia :
Ewa Donesch-Jeżo -English for Nurses
Ewa Donesch-Jeżo - English for Medical Students

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